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MaSS

stepping stones of maritime history

History

Expedition

On June 14th, 1615, two small Southern Company ships, the Hoorn and the Eendracht set out for the East Indies from the Dutch city of Hoorn. As Dutch naval trade around the Cape of Good Hoop was exclusive to the East India Company (VOC), the expedition was aimed at finding an alternative route, around South-America. A second objective was to find the legendary South Land or Australia.

On December 6th, the two ships reached the Patagonian coast. While resupplying, both vessels were hauled onto the beach for cleaning and caulking. As the Hoorn's hull was being fire cleaned, an unexpected squall set fire to the yacht. The crew was unable to extinguish the flames, and the ship largely burned to the ground. Despite this unfortunate event, the sailors succeeded to complete the expedition on the Eendracht. America's southernmost tip was named Cape Horn, after the home town of the expedition, although the ill-fated ship of the same name may also have come to mind.

Detail from a map of the Deseado river by Van Schouten. The burning Hoorn is depicted on the right. (MACHU project).

When the expedition arrived at the Maluku Islands however, the sailors did not receive the warm welcome they were hoping for. The local VOC authorities seized the ship, its cargo and maps, on suspicion of using their patented trade route to the East Indies. Only years later, the expedition leaders Willem Cornelisz Schouten and Jacob le Maire (who had died while being held at Batavia) were rehabilitated.

Impression of the Hoorns demise. Painting by Jack Staller, 2007

Discovery

In the summer of 2003, Argentinean archeologists received word from an inhabitant of Patagonia, who reported to have found several ceramic shards at the shores of the Deseado river. When they investigated further, it turned out that similar pottery had found its way to other local communities. Items recorded at the site by the archaeologists included ballast stones, iron and copper nails and coal, identified as belonging to the wrecked vessel. The ceramic fragments were found to be early 17th century German stoneware, which at the time found extensive usage in Dutch ships. As the archives mentioned only one Dutch loss at Cape Horn in the 17th century, the area was quickly associated with the Hoorn.

Description

Basic information
Type: yacht, small warship
Name: De Hoorn
Associated with: Dutch Republic
Condition: (Partly) preserved in situ, published archaeological documentation available
Heritage status: Physically protected
Involved institutions: Underwater Archaeology Program of the National Institute of Anthropology

The Eendracht and the Hoorn leaving the port of Hoorn, unknown artist (Wikipedia Commons).

Status

Research expedition
In 2005 and 2006 a team of Argentinean and Dutch archaeologists set out to find the wreck of the Hoorn. An intensive survey of the shores and shallow water of the Deseado river resulted in some 500 finds, hinting at the yacht's location. Using sonar equipment, the exact location of the Hoorn could eventually be pinpointed. The condition of the wreck remains unknown, as it lies safely buried beneath a thick layer of sediment, in the middle of a nature reserve.

A total area of 500,000 m2 was investigated using geophysics equipment. (MACHU project).

East Indiaman

Roman structures